JAPANESE GARDEN STYLES

Japanese Garden Styles - Japanese Garden designs - Japanese Garden dry landscape style.

Commonly, Japanese gardens have pond in the centre, and inequalities of the ground or artificial hills on which garden stones, trees and plants are placed, in order to represent seasonal changes in the scenery. One of the popular techniques used in the gardens are the technique to express the way the water flows from deep in the mountains and gradually becomes bigger stream by creating artificial water falls. There are also popular technique to stand and combine rocks and stones, and technique to imitate Penglaishan, a crane island, and a turtle island in order to add religious meaning the garden. Lanterns, arbours and tea houses are also often placed throughout. Since the Muromachi era, gardens in which water current is expressed not by using water but by stones, sand and plants have appeared. This technique is called �dry landscape� style. After the Edo Period, the technique called �borrowed scenery�, which takes advantage of the landscape outside the garden, was also used.

Japanese gardens might fall into one of these styles:

Strolling gardens, for viewing from a path
Sitting gardens, for contemplating from one place, such as the tiny tsuboniwa found in machiya (traditional wooden townhouses).

Many Zen temples feature a garden in the karesansui (or karesenzui, kosansui, kosensui 枯山水: "dry landscape") style. These have no water, but typically evoke a feeling of water using pebbles and meticulously raked gravel or sand. Rocks chosen for their intriguing shapes and patterns, mosses, and low shrubs typify the karesansui style. The garden at Ryōan-ji, a temple in Kyoto, is particularly renowned.


Ryōan-ji, a temple in Kyoto

Other gardens also use similar rocks for decoration. Some of these come from distant parts of Japan. In addition, bamboos and related plants, evergreens including Japanese black pine, and such deciduous trees as maples grow above a carpet of ferns and mosses.

Shakkei (借景), "borrowed scenery," is a technique Japanese gardeners use to make a small garden seem more spacious. By judiciously planting shrubs to block the view of nearby structures, they encourage the viewer to look up toward the mountains, and to think of them as part of the garden.

(Article based on Wikipedia article and used under the GNU Free Documentation License)

Japanese Gardens

JAPANESE GARDEN

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